Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

A variety of FRET-based biosensors are currently in use for real-time monitoring of dynamic changes of intracellular cAMP. Due to differences in sensor properties, unique features of the cell type under examination and diverse specifications of the imaging setups in different laboratories, data generated using these sensors may not be immediately comparable within the same study or across studies. To facilitate comparison, often FRET data are normalized and expressed as fractional change of the maximal FRET response at sensor saturation. However, this approach may lead to misinterpretation of the underlying cAMP change. In this chapter, we provide examples of the problems that may arise when using normalized FRET data and present a method based on the conversion of FRET ratio changes into actual cAMP concentrations that mitigates these issues.

Original publication




Journal article


Methods Mol Biol

Publication Date





217 - 237


Biosensors, FRET, Fluorescence resonance energy transfer, Intracellular signaling, Protein kinase A, Real time imaging, cAMP, Biosensing Techniques, Cyclic AMP, Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer, HEK293 Cells, Humans, Signal Transduction