Distinct functions of a cGMP-dependent protein kinase in nerve terminal growth and synaptic vesicle cycling.
Dason JS., Allen AM., Vasquez OE., Sokolowski MB.
Sustained neurotransmission requires the tight coupling of synaptic vesicle (SV) exocytosis and endocytosis. The mechanisms underlying this coupling are poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that a cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG), encoded by the foraging (for) gene in Drosophila melanogaster, is critical for this process using a for null mutant, genomic rescues and tissue-specific rescues. We uncoupled the exocytic and endocytic functions of FOR in neurotransmission using a temperature-sensitive shibire mutant in conjunction with fluorescein-assisted light inactivation of FOR. We discovered a dual role for presynaptic FOR, in which FOR inhibits SV exocytosis during low-frequency stimulation by negatively regulating presynaptic Ca2+ levels and maintains neurotransmission during high-frequency stimulation by facilitating SV endocytosis. Additionally, glial FOR negatively regulated nerve terminal growth through TGF-β signalling, and this developmental effect was independent of the effects of FOR on neurotransmission. Overall, FOR plays a critical role in coupling SV exocytosis and endocytosis, thereby balancing these two components to maintain sustained neurotransmission.