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Cardiac sympathetic overactivity is a well-established contributor to the progression of neurogenic hypertension and heart failure, yet the underlying pathophysiology remains unclear. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of acutely regulated cyclic nucleotides and their effectors in the control of intracellular calcium and exocytosis. Emerging evidence now suggests that a significant component of sympathetic overactivity and enhanced transmission may arise from impaired cyclic nucleotide signalling, resulting from compromised phosphodiesterase activity, as well as alterations in receptor-coupled G-protein activation. In this review, we address some of the key cellular and molecular pathways that contribute to sympathetic overactivity in hypertension and discuss their potential for therapeutic targeting.

Original publication




Journal article


J Physiol

Publication Date





2957 - 2976


Autonomic Nervous System, Cardiovascular Disease, Cyclic Nucleotide, Hypertension, Intracellular Calcium, Protein Kinase, Sympathetic Ganglion, Sympathetic Nervous System, Heart, Heart Failure, Humans, Hypertension, Sympathetic Nervous System