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The authors predicted that children who have experienced frequent visual confusion of text during their development because of unstable binocular control may be prevented from discovering the rules and patterns of English orthography. The authors compared the spelling errors made by children who had unstable binocular vision with those of children who had stable binocular vision and the same spelling ability. The subjects were drawn from a clinical population of children referred because of suspected reading difficulties; though they were of mixed abilities, they were generally poor spellers and readers. Children with unstable binocular control made spelling errors which were more phonologically plausible than those made by the control group with normal binocular vision.

Original publication




Journal article


Dev Med Child Neurol

Publication Date





716 - 726


Child, Dyslexia, Female, Humans, Male, Perceptual Disorders, Phonetics, Reading, Semantics, Vision, Binocular, Visual Perception