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In a 1987 study of children with reading difficulties, Stein, Riddell, and Fowler observed a relationship between poor vergence control, as indicated on a synoptophore vergence test, and the children's problems with learning to read. They suggested that poor vergence control led to impaired accuracy of spatial localisation and that this impeded learning to read. Here we have compared the accuracy of spatial localisation on a nonlinguistic computer game by children having good and poor vergence control. The children with poor vergence control made significantly more errors when locating targets than children with good vergence control. These results lend further support to the hypothesis that some children do not learn to read because they are unable to determine accurately the positions of letters in words.

Original publication




Journal article


Percept Mot Skills

Publication Date





707 - 718


Attention, Child, Child Development, Child, Preschool, Convergence, Ocular, Discrimination Learning, Dominance, Cerebral, Dyslexia, Eye Movements, Female, Form Perception, Humans, Male, Orientation, Pattern Recognition, Visual, Psychomotor Performance, Vision Disparity