Fatty Acids Prevent Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α Signaling Through Decreased Succinate in Diabetes.
Dodd MS., Sousa Fialho MDL., Montes Aparicio CN., Kerr M., Timm KN., Griffin JL., Luiken JJFP., Glatz JFC., Tyler DJ., Heather LC.
Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α is essential following a myocardial infarction (MI), and diabetic patients have poorer prognosis post-MI. Could HIF-1α activation be abnormal in the diabetic heart, and could metabolism be causing this? Diabetic hearts had decreased HIF-1α protein following ischemia, and insulin-resistant cardiomyocytes had decreased HIF-1α-mediated signaling and adaptation to hypoxia. This was due to elevated fatty acid (FA) metabolism preventing HIF-1α protein stabilization. FAs exerted their effect by decreasing succinate concentrations, a HIF-1α activator that inhibits the regulatory HIF hydroxylase enzymes. In vivo and in vitro pharmacological HIF hydroxylase inhibition restored HIF-1α accumulation and improved post-ischemic functional recovery in diabetes.