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In adaptive optical microscopy of thick biological tissue, strong scattering and aberrations can change the effective pupil shape by rendering some Shack-Hartmann spots unusable. The change of pupil shape leads to a change of wavefront reconstruction or control matrix that should be updated accordingly. Modified slope and modal wavefront control methods based on measurements of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor are proposed to accommodate an arbitrarily shaped pupil. Furthermore, we present partial wavefront control methods that remove specific aberration modes like tip, tilt and defocus from the control loop. The proposed control methods were investigated and compared by simulation using experimentally obtained aberration data. The performance was then tested experimentally through closed-loop aberration corrections using an obscured pupil.

Original publication




Journal article


Opt Express

Publication Date





1655 - 1669


Aberrometry, Algorithms, Animals, Brain, Caenorhabditis elegans, Iris, Microscopy, Optical Imaging, Pupil