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KIAA0319 is a transmembrane protein associated with dyslexia with a presumed role in neuronal migration. Here we show that KIAA0319 expression is not restricted to the brain but also occurs in sensory and spinal cord neurons, increasing from early postnatal stages to adulthood and being downregulated by injury. This suggested that KIAA0319 participates in functions unrelated to neuronal migration. Supporting this hypothesis, overexpression of KIAA0319 repressed axon growth in hippocampal and dorsal root ganglia neurons; the intracellular domain of KIAA0319 was sufficient to elicit this effect. A similar inhibitory effect was observed in vivo as axon regeneration was impaired after transduction of sensory neurons with KIAA0319. Conversely, the deletion of Kiaa0319 in neurons increased neurite outgrowth in vitro and improved axon regeneration in vivo. At the mechanistic level, KIAA0319 engaged the JAK2-SH2B1 pathway to activate Smad2, which played a central role in KIAA0319-mediated repression of axon growth. In summary, we establish KIAA0319 as a novel player in axon growth and regeneration with the ability to repress the intrinsic growth potential of axons. This study describes a novel regulatory mechanism operating during peripheral nervous system and central nervous system axon growth, and offers novel targets for the development of effective therapies to promote axon regeneration.

Original publication

DOI

10.1093/cercor/bhx023

Type

Journal article

Journal

Cereb Cortex

Publication Date

01/03/2017

Volume

27

Pages

1732 - 1747

Keywords

KIAA0319, Smad2, axon growth, axon regeneration, dyslexia, Aging, Animals, Axons, Cell Adhesion Molecules, Cell Enlargement, Cell Line, Cells, Cultured, Female, Ganglia, Spinal, Hippocampus, Humans, Janus Kinase 2, Male, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Mice, Transgenic, Nerve Regeneration, Nerve Tissue Proteins, Neuronal Outgrowth, Neurons, Protein Domains, Rats, Wistar, Sciatic Nerve, Smad2 Protein, Spinal Cord