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Compartmentation is essential for the localization of biological processes within a cell. In 2010, three groups independently reported that cytidine triphosphate synthase (CTPS), a metabolic enzyme for de novo synthesis of the nucleotide CTP, is compartmentalized in cytoophidia (Greek for "cellular snakes") in bacteria, yeast, and fruit flies. Subsequent studies demonstrate that CTPS can also form filaments in human cells. Thus, the cytoophidium represents a new type of intracellular compartment that is strikingly conserved across prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Multiple lines of evidence have recently suggested that polymerization of metabolic enzymes such as CTPS and inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase into filamentous cytoophidia modulates enzymatic activity. With many more metabolic enzymes found to form the cytoophidium and its kind, compartmentation via filamentation may serve as a general mechanism for the regulation of metabolism.

Original publication

DOI

10.1146/annurev-cellbio-111315-124907

Type

Journal article

Journal

Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol

Publication Date

06/10/2016

Volume

32

Pages

349 - 372

Keywords

CTP synthase, CTPS, IMPDH, cytoplasm, metabolism, nucleus, organelle