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Neuronal elements distributed throughout the cardiac nervous system, from the level of the insular cortex to the intrinsic cardiac nervous system, are in constant communication with one another to ensure that cardiac output matches the dynamic process of regional blood flow demand. Neural elements in their various 'levels' become differentially recruited in the transduction of sensory inputs arising from the heart, major vessels, other visceral organs and somatic structures to optimize neuronal coordination of regional cardiac function. This White Paper will review the relevant aspects of the structural and functional organization for autonomic control of the heart in normal conditions, how these systems remodel/adapt during cardiac disease, and finally how such knowledge can be leveraged in the evolving realm of autonomic regulation therapy for cardiac therapeutics.

Original publication




Journal article


J Physiol

Publication Date





3877 - 3909