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Extracellular vesicles including exosomes, microvesicles and apoptotic vesicles, are phospholipid bilayer surrounded structures secreted by cells universally, in an evolutionarily conserved fashion. Posttranslational modifications such as oxidation, citrullination, phosphorylation and glycosylation play diverse roles in extracellular vesicle biology. Posttranslational modifications orchestrate the biogenesis of extracellular vesicles. The signals extracellular vesicles transmit between cells also often function via modulating posttranslational modifications of target molecules, given that extracellular vesicles are carriers of several active enzymes catalysing posttranslational modifications. Posttranslational modifications of extracellular vesicles can also contribute to disease pathology by e.g. amplifying inflammation, generating neoepitopes or carrying neoepitopes themselves.

Original publication

DOI

10.1016/j.semcdb.2015.02.012

Type

Journal article

Journal

Semin Cell Dev Biol

Publication Date

04/2015

Volume

40

Pages

8 - 16

Keywords

Citrullination, Exosome, Extracellular vesicle, Microvesicle, Oxidation, Posttranslational modification, Animals, Citrulline, Extracellular Vesicles, Glycosylation, Humans, Oxidation-Reduction, Phosphorylation, Protein Processing, Post-Translational, Ubiquitination