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AIMS: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the commonest cause of sudden cardiac death in the young, with an excess of exercise-related deaths. The HCM sarcomere mutations increase the energy cost of contraction and impaired resting cardiac energetics has been documented by measurement of phosphocreatine/ATP (PCr/ATP) using (31)Phosphorus MR Spectroscopy ((31)P MRS). We hypothesized that cardiac energetics are further impaired acutely during exercise in HCM and that this would have important functional consequences. METHODS AND RESULTS: (31)P MRS was performed in 35 HCM patients and 20 age- and gender-matched normal volunteers at rest and during leg exercise with 2.5 kg ankle weights. Peak left-ventricular filling rates (PFRs) and myocardial perfusion reserve (MPRI) were calculated during adenosine stress. Resting PCr/ATP was significantly reduced in HCM (HCM: 1.71 ± 0.35, normal 2.14 ± 0.35 P < 0.0001). During exercise, there was a further reduction in PCr/ATP in HCM (1.56 ± 0.29, P = 0.02 compared with rest) but not in normals (2.16 ± 0.26, P = 0.98 compared with rest). There was no correlation between PCr/ATP reduction and cardiac mass, wall thickness, MPRI, or late-gadolinium enhancement. PFR and PCr/ATP were significantly correlated at rest (r = 0.48, P = 0.02) and stress (r = 0.53, P = 0.01). CONCLUSION: During exercise, the pre-existing energetic deficit in HCM is further exacerbated independent of hypertrophy, perfusion reserve, or degree of fibrosis. This is in keeping with the change at the myofilament level. We offer a potential explanation for exercise-related diastolic dysfunction in HCM.

Original publication




Journal article


Eur Heart J

Publication Date





1547 - 1554


31PMRS, Exercise, Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy, Adenosine Triphosphate, Adult, Blood Pressure, Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic, Case-Control Studies, Diastole, Energy Metabolism, Exercise, Female, Heart Rate, Humans, Magnetic Resonance Angiography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine, Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, Male, Phosphocreatine, Prospective Studies, Stroke Volume, Ventricular Dysfunction, Left