Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

There are over 120 types of autoantibodies found in the blood of SLE patients against cellular and extracellular components in both their native and posttranslationally modified forms. In recent years, these autoantibodies have provoked interest as initiators of pathology and as biomarkers of disease activity. Often, the host antigens employed in lab-based and commercially developed immunoassays use non-human antigen or non-modified host antigen as a probe for autoantibodies. Here, we describe methods to posttranslationally modify host antigens, which better represent the antigen recognized by autoantibodies in vivo. This has implications in developing immunoassay with greater sensitivity and specificity.

Original publication




Journal article


Methods Mol Biol

Publication Date





163 - 171


Autoantibodies, Autoantigens, Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, Humans, Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic, Oxidation-Reduction, Reactive Nitrogen Species, Reactive Oxygen Species