Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Different striatal projection neurons are the origin of a dual organization essential for basal ganglia function. We have defined an analogous division of labor in the external globus pallidus (GPe) of Parkinsonian rats, showing that the distinct temporal activities of two populations of GPe neuron in vivo are underpinned by distinct molecular profiles and axonal connectivities. A first population of prototypic GABAergic GPe neurons fire antiphase to subthalamic nucleus (STN) neurons, often express parvalbumin, and target downstream basal ganglia nuclei, including STN. In contrast, a second population (arkypallidal neurons) fire in-phase with STN neurons, express preproenkephalin, and only innervate the striatum. This novel cell type provides the largest extrinsic GABAergic innervation of striatum, targeting both projection neurons and interneurons. We conclude that GPe exhibits several core components of a dichotomous organization as fundamental as that in striatum. Thus, two populations of GPe neuron together orchestrate activities across all basal ganglia nuclei in a cell-type-specific manner.

Original publication




Journal article



Publication Date





1075 - 1086


Animals, Basal Ganglia, Corpus Striatum, Enkephalins, Globus Pallidus, Neural Pathways, Neurons, Parvalbumins, Protein Precursors, Rats