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Amnesiac mutant flies have an olfactory memory defect. The amn gene encodes a homolog of vertebrate pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP), and it is strongly expressed in dorsal paired medial (DPM) neurons. DPM neurons ramify throughout the mushroom bodies in the adult fly brain, and they are required for stable memory. Here, we show that DPM neuron output is only required during the consolidation phase for middle-term odor memory and is dispensable during acquisition and recall. However, we found that DPM neuron output is required during acquisition of a benzaldehyde odor memory. We show that flies sense benzaldehyde by the classical olfactory and a noncanonical route. These results suggest that DPM neurons are required to consolidate memory and are differently involved in memory of a volatile that requires multisensory integration.

Original publication




Journal article



Publication Date





521 - 533


Analysis of Variance, Animals, Animals, Genetically Modified, Avoidance Learning, Behavior, Animal, Benzaldehydes, Brain, Conditioning, Psychological, Drosophila, Drosophila Proteins, Fushi Tarazu Transcription Factors, Histocytochemistry, Maze Learning, Memory, Microscopy, Confocal, Mushroom Bodies, Mutagenesis, Neurons, Neuropeptides, Odorants, Olfactory Pathways, Recombinant Fusion Proteins, Temperature, Time Factors, Trans-Activators