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The development of cardiac ventricular cell models since 1960 is reviewed with the focus on the interaction between simulation and experimental work. At each stage, the reasons for new models are explained, as are their defects and how these were used to point the way to successor models. A key feature of our analysis is the demonstration that as much, if not more, was learnt from the way in which models failed as from their successes. The review leads up to the most recent developments in this field and indicates the ways in which it may be expected to advance in the future.

Original publication




Journal article


Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences

Publication Date





1127 - 1142