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Co-localization of Na+/Ca2+ exchangers (NCX) with ryanodine receptors (RyRs) is debated. We incorporate local NCX current in a biophysically detailed model of L-type Ca2+ channels (LCCs) and RyRs and study the effect of NCX on the regulation of Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release and the shape of the action potential. In canine ventricular cells, under pathological conditions, e.g., impaired LCCs, local NCXs become an enhancer of sarcoplasmic reticulum release. Under such conditions incorporation of local NCXs is critical to accurately capture mechanisms of excitation-contraction coupling.

Original publication




Journal article


Ann N Y Acad Sci

Publication Date





215 - 220


Animals, Models, Theoretical, Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel, Sodium-Calcium Exchanger