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Mathematical models of the electrical activity of the heart using equations for protein ion channels and other transporters began with the Noble 1962 model. These models then developed over a period of about 50 years. Cell types in all regions have been modeled and now are available for download from the CellML website ( Simulation is a necessary tool of analysis in attempting to understand biological complexity. We often learn as much from the failures as from the successes of mathematical models. It is the iterative interaction between experiment and simulation that is important.

Original publication




Journal article


Heart Rhythm

Publication Date





1798 - 1803


Animals, Cardiac Electrophysiology, Heart, Humans, Models, Anatomic, Myocytes, Cardiac