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The transcription factors Satb2 (special AT-rich sequence binding protein 2) and Ctip2 (COUP-TF interacting protein 2) have been shown to be required for callosal and corticospinal axon growth respectively from subtypes of cerebral cortex projection neurons. In this study we investigated early stages of directed axon growth in the embryonic mouse cerebral cortex, and studied the possible correlation with the expression of Satb2 and Ctip2. Electroporation of an EYFP-expressing plasmid at embryonic day 13.5 to label developing projection neurons revealed that directed axon growth is first seen in radially migrating neurons in the intermediate zone (IZ), prior to migration into the cortical plate, as has been suggested previously. Onset of expression of SATB2 and CTIP2 was also observed in the IZ, correlating well with this stage of migration and initiation of axon growth. Immunohistochemical staining through embryonic and early postnatal development revealed a significant population of Satb2/Ctip2 co-expressing cells, while retrograde axon tracing from the corpus callosum at embryonic day 18.5 back-labelled many neurons with bi-directional axon processes. However, through retrograde tracing and simultaneous immunohistochemical staining we show that these bi-directional processes do not correlate with Satb2/Ctip2 co-expression. Our work shows that although expression of these transcription factors correlates well with the appearance of directed axon growth during cortical development, the transcriptional code underlying the bi-directional axonal projections of early neocortical neurons is not likely to be the result of Satb2/Ctip2 co-expression.

Original publication




Journal article


J Anat

Publication Date





201 - 211


Animals, Axons, Cerebral Cortex, Corpus Callosum, DNA-Binding Proteins, Electroporation, Immunohistochemistry, Matrix Attachment Region Binding Proteins, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Repressor Proteins, Transcription Factors, Tumor Suppressor Proteins