Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

How does the brain translate sensory information into complex behaviors? With relatively small neuronal numbers, readable behavioral outputs, and an unparalleled genetic toolkit, the Drosophila mushroom body (MB) offers an excellent model to address this question in the context of associative learning and memory. Recent technological breakthroughs, such as the freshly completed full-brain connectome, multiomics approaches, CRISPR-mediated gene editing, and machine learning techniques, led to major advancements in our understanding of the MB circuit at the molecular, structural, physiological, and functional levels. Despite significant progress in individual MB areas, the field still faces the fundamental challenge of resolving how these different levels combine and interact to ultimately control the behavior of an individual fly. In this review, we discuss various aspects of MB research, with a focus on the current knowledge gaps, and an outlook on the future methodological developments required to reach an overall view of the neurobiological basis of learning and memory.

Original publication




Journal article


Learn Mem

Publication Date





Mushroom Bodies, Animals, Drosophila, Memory, Association Learning