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Electrical activity plays a key role in physiology, in particular for signaling and coordination. Cellular electrophysiology is often studied with micropipette-based techniques such as patch clamp and sharp electrodes, but for measurements at the tissue or organ scale, more integrated approaches are needed. Epifluorescence imaging of voltage-sensitive dyes ("optical mapping") is a tissue non-destructive approach to obtain insight into electrophysiology with high spatiotemporal resolution. Optical mapping has primarily been applied to excitable organs, especially the heart and brain. Action potential durations, conduction patterns, and conduction velocities can be determined from the recordings, providing information about electrophysiological mechanisms, including factors such as effects of pharmacological interventions, ion channel mutations, or tissue remodeling. Here, we describe the process for optical mapping of Langendorff-perfused mouse hearts, highlighting potential issues and key considerations.

Original publication





Publication Date





423 - 434


Cardiac, Electrophysiology, Langendorff, Optical mapping, Voltage imaging, Animals, Mice, Membrane Potentials, Tissue Survival, Heart, Action Potentials, Fluorescent Dyes