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Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex and heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorder with contributions from multiple pathophysiological pathways. One of the long-recognized and important features of AD is disrupted cerebral glucose metabolism, but the underlying molecular basis remains unclear. In this study, unbiased mass spectrometry was used to survey CSF from a large clinical cohort, comparing patients who are either cognitively unimpaired (CU; n = 68), suffering from mild-cognitive impairment or dementia from AD (MCI-AD, n = 95; DEM-AD, n = 72), or other causes (MCI-other, n = 77; DEM-other, n = 23), or Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH, n = 57). The results revealed changes related to altered glucose metabolism. In particular, two glycolytic enzymes, pyruvate kinase (PKM) and aldolase A (ALDOA), were found to be upregulated in CSF from patients with AD compared to those with other neurological conditions. Increases in full-length PKM and ALDOA levels in CSF were confirmed with immunoblotting. Levels of these enzymes furthermore correlated negatively with CSF glucose in matching CSF samples. PKM levels were also found to be increased in AD in publicly available brain-tissue data. These results indicate that ALDOA and PKM may act as technically-robust potential biomarkers of glucose metabolism dysregulation in AD.

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Humans, Alzheimer Disease, Biomarkers, Cognitive Dysfunction, Mass Spectrometry, Hydrocephalus, Normal Pressure, Glycolysis, Glucose, Amyloid beta-Peptides, tau Proteins, Peptide Fragments