Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Nanoparticles can encapsulate a range of therapeutics, from small molecule drugs to sensitive biologics, to significantly improve their biodistribution and biostability. Whilst the regulatory approval of several of these nanoformulations has proven their translatability, there remain several hurdles to the translation of future nanoformulations, leading to a high rate of candidate nanoformulations failing during the drug development process. One barrier is that the difficulty in tightly controlling nanoscale particle synthesis leads to particle-to-particle heterogeneity, which hinders manufacturing and quality control, and regulatory quality checks. To understand and mitigate this heterogeneity requires advancements in nanoformulation characterisation beyond traditional bulk methods to more precise, single particle techniques. In this review, we compare commercially available single particle techniques, with a particular focus on single particle Raman spectroscopy, to provide a guide to adoption of these methods into development workflows, to ultimately reduce barriers to the translation of future nanoformulations.

Original publication




Journal article



Publication Date





cargo loading, nanoformulations, nanoparticle drug delivery, single particle Raman spectroscopy, surface interactions, Tissue Distribution, Nanoparticles, Pharmaceutical Preparations, Particle Size