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The complex and hierarchical vascular network of arteries, veins, and capillaries features considerable endothelial heterogeneity, yet the regulatory pathways directing arteriovenous specification, differentiation, and identity are still not fully understood. Recent advances in analysis of endothelial-specific gene-regulatory elements, single-cell RNA sequencing, and cell lineage tracing have both emphasized the importance of transcriptional regulation in this process and shed considerable light on the mechanism and regulation of specification within the endothelium. In this review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of how endothelial cells acquire arterial and venous identity and the role different transcription factors play in this process.

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Journal article


Current Opinion in Physiology

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