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Stevens M., Minelli C.
Materials scientists are developing nanomaterials in biodiagnostic screening for biological markers and will play an increased role in molecular diagnostics. Colloidal nanoparticles, with their relatively large surface area for biological interaction, provide ways for device miniaturization. Engineering of the biomacromolecule-nanoparticle interface has been investigated to promote biologically responsive nanomaterial assembly. Nanoparticles with a different recognition agent are also introduced to sandwich the target with the microparticle. The surface engineering of nanoparticles has been taken up by Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), the US, which reported the spontaneous generation of rippled domains on gold nanoparticles when two immiscible ligands formed the capping layer. The synthesis of colloidal nanoparticles and their bio-functionalization would be intensely focused in further research works to achieve more powerful and reproducible surface functionalization and engeenering of heterostructural nanoparticles, which combine multiple functionalities.