Spherical bioactive glass particles and their interaction with human mesenchymal stem cells in vitro.
Labbaf S., Tsigkou O., Müller KH., Stevens MM., Porter AE., Jones JR.
Sub-micron particles of bioactive glass (SMBGs) with composition 85 mol% SiO(2) and 15 mol% CaO were synthesised and characterised. Bioactivity was demonstrated by the formation of calcium apatite following 5 days immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF). The effect of a 24 h exposure of SMBGs (100 μg/ml, 150 μg/ml, 200 μg/ml) to human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) on cell viability, metabolic activity and proliferation were determined using the LIVE/DEAD, MTT, total DNA and LDH assays after 1, 4 and 7 days of culture. None of the SMBG concentrations caused significant cytotoxicity at 1 and 4 days, but the doses of 150 and 200 μg/ml significantly decreased hMSC metabolic activity after 7 days of culture. Cell proliferation decreased as SMBG concentration increased; however none of the SMBGs tested had a significant effect on DNA quantity compared to the control. Confocal microscopy confirmed cellular uptake and localisation of the SMBGs in the hMSC cytoskeleton. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the SMBGs localised inside the cell cytoplasm and cell endosomes. These findings are important for assessing the toxicity of sub-micron particles that may either be used as injectables for bone regeneration or generated by wear or degradation of bioactive glass scaffolds.