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Functionalizing nanoparticles with cell-penetrating peptides is a popular choice for cellular delivery. We investigated the effects of TAT peptide concentration and arrangement in solution on functionalized nanoparticles' efficacy for membrane permeation. We found that cell internalization correlates with the positive charge distribution achieved prior to nanoparticle encountering interactions with membrane. We identified a combination of solution based properties required to maximize the internalization efficacy of TAT-functionalized nanoparticles.

Original publication




Journal article


Nano Lett

Publication Date





5229 - 5237


Cell internalization, cell-penetrating peptides, functionalized nanoparticles, gold, molecular dynamics, Computer Simulation, Drug Delivery Systems, Gold, HeLa Cells, Humans, Lipid Bilayers, Microscopy, Electron, Transmission, Molecular Dynamics Simulation, Nanoparticles, Nanotechnology, Peptides, Temperature, Water, tat Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus