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Cellular bioenergetics (CBE) plays a critical role in tissue regeneration. Physiologically, an enhanced metabolic state facilitates anabolic biosynthesis and mitosis to accelerate regeneration. However, the development of approaches to reprogram CBE, toward the treatment of substantial tissue injuries, has been limited thus far. Here, we show that induced repair in a rabbit model of weight-bearing bone defects is greatly enhanced using a bioenergetic-active material (BAM) scaffold compared to commercialized poly(lactic acid) and calcium phosphate ceramic scaffolds. This material was composed of energy-active units that can be released in a sustained degradation-mediated fashion once implanted. By establishing an intramitochondrial metabolic bypass, the internalized energy-active units significantly elevate mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) to supply increased bioenergetic levels and accelerate bone formation. The ready-to-use material developed here represents a highly efficient and easy-to-implement therapeutic approach toward tissue regeneration, with promise for bench-to-bedside translation.

Original publication




Journal article


Sci Adv

Publication Date





Animals, Biocompatible Materials, Bone Regeneration, Chemical Phenomena, Energy Metabolism, Metabolic Networks and Pathways, Rabbits, Regeneration, Spectrum Analysis, Tissue Engineering, Tissue Scaffolds