Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Theranostics, the combination of diagnosis and therapy, has long held promise as a means to achieving personalised precision cancer treatments. However, despite its potential, theranostics has yet to realise significant clinical translation, largely due the complexity and overriding toxicity concerns of existing theranostic nanoparticle strategies. Methods: Here, we present an alternative nanoparticle-free theranostic approach based on simultaneous Raman spectroscopy and photodynamic therapy (PDT) in an integrated clinical platform for cancer theranostics. Results: We detail the compatibility of Raman spectroscopy and PDT for cancer theranostics, whereby Raman spectroscopic diagnosis can be performed on PDT photosensitiser-positive cells and tissues without inadvertent photosensitiser activation/photobleaching or impaired diagnostic capacity. We further demonstrate that our theranostic platform enables in vivo tumour diagnosis, treatment, and post-treatment molecular monitoring in real-time. Conclusion: This system thus achieves effective theranostic performance, providing a promising new avenue towards the clinical realisation of theranostics.

Original publication




Journal article



Publication Date





2006 - 2019


Cancer, Nanoparticle-Free, Photodynamic Therapy, Raman Spectroscopy, Theranostics, Animals, Apoptosis, Cell Proliferation, Colorectal Neoplasms, Drug Monitoring, Female, Humans, Mice, Mice, Nude, Photochemotherapy, Photosensitizing Agents, Spectrum Analysis, Raman, Theranostic Nanomedicine, Tumor Cells, Cultured, Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays