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Inorganic-organic hybrid biomaterials made with star polymer poly(methyl methacrylate-co-3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate) and silica, which show promising mechanical properties, are 3D printed as bone substitutes for the first time, by direct ink writing of the sol. Three different inorganic:organic ratios of poly(methyl methacrylate-co-3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate)-star-SiO2 hybrid inks are printed with pore channels in the range of 100-200 µm. Mechanical properties of the 3D printed scaffolds fall within the range of trabecular bone, and MC3T3 pre-osteoblast cells are able to adhere to the scaffolds in vitro, regardless of their compositions. Osteogenic and angiogenic properties of the hybrid scaffolds are shown using a rat calvarial defect model. Hybrid scaffolds with 40:60 inorganic:organic composition are able to instigate new vascularized bone formation within its pore channels and polarize macrophages toward M2 phenotype. 3D printing inorganic-organic hybrids with sophisticated polymer structure opens up possibilities to produce novel bone graft materials.

Original publication




Journal article


Adv Healthc Mater

Publication Date





3D printing, biomaterials, bone substitutes, hybrids, sol-gels, Animals, Bone Regeneration, Methacrylates, Porosity, Printing, Three-Dimensional, Rats, Silicon Dioxide, Tissue Scaffolds