Employing defined bioconjugates to generate chemically functionalised gold nanoparticles for in vitro diagnostic applications.
Richards DA., Thomas MR., Szijj PA., Foote J., Chen Y., Nogueira JCF., Chudasama V., Stevens MM.
Novel methods for introducing chemical and biological functionality to the surface of gold nanoparticles serve to increase the utility of this class of nanomaterials across a range of applications. To date, methods for functionalising gold surfaces have relied upon uncontrollable non-specific adsorption, bespoke chemical linkers, or non-generalisable protein-protein interactions. Herein we report a versatile method for introducing functionality to gold nanoparticles by exploiting the strong interaction between chemically functionalised bovine serum albumin (f-BSA) and citrate-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). We establish the generalisability of the method by introducing a variety of functionalities to gold nanoparticles using cheap, commercially available chemical linkers. The utility of this approach is further demonstrated through the conjugation of the monoclonal antibody Ontruzant to f-BSA-AuNPs using inverse electron-demand Diels-Alder (iEDDA) click chemistry, a hitherto unexplored chemistry for AuNP-IgG conjugation. Finally, we show that the AuNP-Ontruzant particles generated via f-BSA-AuNPs have a greater affinity for their target in a lateral flow format when compared to conventional physisorption, highlighting the potential of this technology for producing sensitive diagnostic tests.