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Novel methods for introducing chemical and biological functionality to the surface of gold nanoparticles serve to increase the utility of this class of nanomaterials across a range of applications. To date, methods for functionalising gold surfaces have relied upon uncontrollable non-specific adsorption, bespoke chemical linkers, or non-generalisable protein-protein interactions. Herein we report a versatile method for introducing functionality to gold nanoparticles by exploiting the strong interaction between chemically functionalised bovine serum albumin (f-BSA) and citrate-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). We establish the generalisability of the method by introducing a variety of functionalities to gold nanoparticles using cheap, commercially available chemical linkers. The utility of this approach is further demonstrated through the conjugation of the monoclonal antibody Ontruzant to f-BSA-AuNPs using inverse electron-demand Diels-Alder (iEDDA) click chemistry, a hitherto unexplored chemistry for AuNP-IgG conjugation. Finally, we show that the AuNP-Ontruzant particles generated via f-BSA-AuNPs have a greater affinity for their target in a lateral flow format when compared to conventional physisorption, highlighting the potential of this technology for producing sensitive diagnostic tests.

Original publication




Journal article



Publication Date





11921 - 11931


Adsorption, Citric Acid, Gold, Metal Nanoparticles, Serum Albumin, Bovine