Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Musculoskeletal injuries and disorders are the leading cause of physical disability worldwide and a considerable socioeconomic burden. The lack of effective therapies has driven the development of novel bioengineering approaches that have recently started to gain clinical approvals. In this review, we first discuss the self-repair capacity of the musculoskeletal tissues and describe causes of musculoskeletal dysfunction. We then review the development of novel biomaterial, immunomodulatory, cellular, and gene therapies to treat musculoskeletal disorders. Last, we consider the recent regulatory changes and future areas of technological progress that can accelerate translation of these therapies to clinical practice.

Original publication




Journal article


Sci Transl Med

Publication Date





Biocompatible Materials, Bioengineering, Biomedical Engineering, Genetic Therapy, Tissue Engineering, Wound Healing