Multi-modal Proteomic Characterization of Lysosomal Function and Proteostasis in Progranulin-Deficient Neurons.
Hasan S., Fernandopulle MS., Humble SW., Frankenfield AM., Li H., Prestil R., Johnson KR., Ryan BJ., Wade-Martins R., Ward ME., Hao L.
Progranulin (PGRN) is a lysosomal protein implicated in various neurodegenerative diseases. Over 70 mutations discovered in the GRN gene all result in reduced expression of PGRN protein. However, the detailed molecular function of PGRN within lysosomes and the impact of PGRN deficiency on lysosomal biology remain unclear. Here we leveraged multifaceted proteomic techniques to comprehensively characterize how PGRN deficiency changes the molecular and functional landscape of neuronal lysosomes. Using lysosome proximity labeling and immuno-purification of intact lysosomes, we characterized lysosome compositions and interactomes in both human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived glutamatergic neurons (i 3 Neurons) and mouse brains. Using dynamic stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (dSILAC) proteomics, we measured global protein half-lives in i 3 Neurons for the first time and characterized the impact of progranulin deficiency on neuronal proteostasis. Together, this study indicated that PGRN loss impairs the lysosomeâ€™s degradative capacity with increased levels of v-ATPase subunits on the lysosome membrane, increased catabolic enzymes within the lysosome, elevated lysosomal pH, and pronounced alterations in neuron protein turnover. Collectively, these results suggested PGRN as a critical regulator of lysosomal pH and degradative capacity, which in turn influences global proteostasis in neurons. The multi-modal techniques developed here also provided useful data resources and tools to study the highly dynamic lysosome biology in neurons.