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Management of brain tumors is based on clinical and radiological information with presumed grade dictating treatment. Hence, a non-invasive assessment of tumor grade is of paramount importance to choose the best treatment plan. Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) represent one of the effective Deep Learning (DL)-based techniques that have been used for brain tumor diagnosis. However, they are unable to handle input modifications effectively. Capsule neural networks (CapsNets) are a novel type of machine learning (ML) architecture that was recently developed to address the drawbacks of CNNs. CapsNets are resistant to rotations and affine translations, which is beneficial when processing medical imaging datasets. Moreover, Vision Transformers (ViT)-based solutions have been very recently proposed to address the issue of long-range dependency in CNNs. This survey provides a comprehensive overview of brain tumor classification and segmentation techniques, with a focus on ML-based, CNN-based, CapsNet-based, and ViT-based techniques. The survey highlights the fundamental contributions of recent studies and the performance of state-of-the-art techniques. Moreover, we present an in-depth discussion of crucial issues and open challenges. We also identify some key limitations and promising future research directions. We envisage that this survey shall serve as a good springboard for further study.

Original publication




Journal article


J Imaging

Publication Date





brain cancer, capsule neural networks, deep learning, machine learning, magnetic resonance imaging, vision transformers