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The signal acquired in sodium (23Na) MR imaging is proportional to the concentration of sodium in a voxel, and it is possible to convert between the two using external calibration phantoms. Postprocessing, and subsequent analysis, of sodium renal images is a simple task that can be performed with readily available software. Here we describe the process of conversion between sodium signal and concentration, estimation of the corticomedullary sodium gradient and the procedure used for quadrupolar relaxation analysis.This chapter is based upon work from the COST Action PARENCHIMA, a community-driven network funded by the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) program of the European Union, which aims to improve the reproducibility and standardization of renal MRI biomarkers. This analysis protocol chapter is complemented by two separate chapters describing the basic concept and experimental procedure.

Original publication





Publication Date





689 - 696


23Na, Kidney, Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), Rats, Sodium, Animals, Contrast Media, Image Processing, Computer-Assisted, Imaging, Three-Dimensional, Kidney, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Monitoring, Physiologic, Phantoms, Imaging, Rats, Sodium Isotopes, Software