The technical reliability and biotemporal stability of cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for profiling multiple pathophysiologies in Alzheimer’s disease
Trombetta BA., Carlyle BC., Koenig AM., Shaw LM., Trojanowski JQ., Wolk DA., Locascio JJ., Arnold SE.
OBJECTIVE Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a complex neurodegenerative disease driven by multiple interacting pathophysiological processes that ultimately results in synaptic loss, neuronal death, and dementia. We implemented a fit-for-purpose modeled approach to qualify a broad selection of commercially available immunoassays and evaluate the biotemporal stability of analytes across five pathophysiological domains of interest in AD, including core amyloid-β (Aβ) and tau AD biomarkers, neurodegeneration, inflammation/immune modulation, neurovascular injury, and metabolism/oxidative stress. METHODS Paired baseline and eight-week CSFs from twenty participants in a clinical drug trial for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or mild dementia due to AD were used to evaluate sensitivity, intra-assay precision, inter-assay replicability, and eight-week biotemporal stability for sixty unique analytes measured with commercially available single- and multi-plex ELISA assays. Coefficients of variation (CV) were calculated, and intraclass correlation and Wilcoxon signed rank tests were applied. RESULTS We identified 32 biomarker candidates with good to excellent performance characteristics according to assay technical performance and CSF analyte biotemporal stability cut-off criteria. These included: 1) the core AD biomarkers Aβ1-42, Aβ1-40, Aβ1-38, and total tau; 2) non-Aβ, non-tau neurodegeneration markers NfL and FABP3; 3) inflammation/immune modulation markers IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-12/23p40, IL-15, IL-16, MCP-1, MDC, MIP-1β, and YKL-40; 4) neurovascular markers Flt-1, ICAM-1, MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-10, PlGF, VCAM-1, VEGF, VEGF-C, and VEGF-D; and 5) metabolism/oxidative stress markers 24-OHC, adiponectin, leptin, soluble insulin receptor, and 8-OHdG. CONCLUSIONS Assays for these CSF analytes demonstrate consistent sensitivity, reliability, and biotemporally stability for use in a multiple pathophysiological CSF biomarker panel to profile AD. Their qualification enables further investigation for use in AD diagnosis, staging and progression, disease mechanism profiling, and clinical trials.