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The effect of spontaneous beat-to-beat mean arterial blood pressure fluctuations and breath-to-breath end-tidal CO2 fluctuations on beat-to-beat cerebral blood flow velocity variations is studied using the Laguerre-Volterra network methodology for multiple-input nonlinear systems. The observations made from experimental measurements from ten healthy human subjects reveal that, whereas pressure fluctuations explain most of the high-frequency blood flow velocity variations (above 0.04 Hz), end-tidal CO2 fluctuations as well as nonlinear interactions between pressure and CO2 have a considerable effect in the lower frequencies (below 0.04 Hz). They also indicate that cerebral autoregulation is strongly nonlinear and dynamic (frequency-dependent). Nonlinearities are mainly active in the low-frequency range (below 0.04 Hz) and are more prominent in the dynamics of the end-tidal CO2-blood flow velocity relationship. Significant nonstationarities are also revealed by the obtained models, with greater variability evident for the effects of CO2 on blood flow velocity dynamics.

Original publication




Journal article


IEEE Trans Biomed Eng

Publication Date





1932 - 1943


Adult, Blood Flow Velocity, Blood Pressure, Brain, Carbon Dioxide, Cerebrovascular Circulation, Computer Simulation, Humans, Models, Cardiovascular, Nonlinear Dynamics, Pulmonary Gas Exchange, Statistics as Topic