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Aberrations arising from sources such as sample heterogeneity and refractive index mismatches are constant problems in biological imaging. These aberrations reduce image quality and the achievable depth of imaging, particularly in super-resolution microscopy techniques. Adaptive optics (AO) technology has been proven to be effective in correcting for these aberrations, thereby improving the image quality. However, it has not been widely adopted by the biological imaging community due, in part, to difficulty in set-up and operation of AO. The methods for doing so are not novel or unknown, but new users often waste time and effort reimplementing existing methods for their specific set-ups, hardware, sample types, etc. Microscope-AOtools offers a robust, easy-to-use implementation of the essential methods for set-up and use of AO elements and techniques. These methods are constructed in a generalised manner that can utilise a range of adaptive optics elements, wavefront sensing techniques and sensorless AO correction methods. Furthermore, the methods are designed to be easily extensible as new techniques arise, leading to a streamlined pipeline for new AO technology and techniques to be adopted by the wider microscopy community.

Original publication




Journal article


Opt Express

Publication Date





28987 - 29003