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Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are particles secreted by a vast variety of cells and are often recognised to mimic the properties of their parent cell, as such those derived from developmental sources hold promise for the treatment of various diseases including myocardial infarction (MI). Here we review the experimental approaches taken for assessing the therapeutic efficacy of EVs for MI and find overt shortcomings regarding purity of isolated EVs, quantitation, dosing, EV labelling/uptake, route of administration and use of appropriate controls that renders much of the data uninterpretable. Overall, the EV/MI field has suffered from experimental approaches that are not fully standardised or validated. Fundamental improvements in EV study design are required to improve interpretation of efficacy and to ensure reproducibility and comparability across preclinical MI studies.

Original publication




Journal article


Trends Cardiovasc Med

Publication Date



Characterisation, Extracellular vesicles, Isolation, Mode-of-action, Myocardial infarction, Preclinical studies, dosing and uptake