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We propose a hologram design process which aims at reducing aberrations in parallel three-dimensional direct laser writing applications. One principle of the approach is to minimise the diffractive power of holograms while retaining the degree of parallelisation. This reduces focal distortion caused by chromatic aberration. We address associated problems such as the zero diffraction order and aberrations induced by a potential refractive index mismatch between the immersion medium of the microscope objective and the fabrication substrate. Results from fabrication in diamond, fused silica and lithium niobate are presented.

Original publication




Journal article


Opt Express

Publication Date





21090 - 21099


Algorithms, Color, Colorimetry, Equipment Design, Imaging, Three-Dimensional, Lasers, Lenses, Light, Models, Statistical, Optics and Photonics, Refractometry