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Natural polymers collagen, glycosaminoglycans, and elastin are promising candidate materials for heart valve tissue engineering scaffolds. This work produced trilayer scaffolds that resembled the layered structures of the extracellular matrices of native heart valves. The scaffolds showed anisotropic bending moduli (in both dry and hydrated statuses) depending on the loading directions (lower in the With Curvature direction than in the Against Curvature direction), which mimicked the characteristic behavior of the native heart valves. The interactions between cardiosphere-derived cells and the scaffolds were characterized by multiphoton microscopy, and relatively similar cell distributions were observed on different layers (a cell density of 3,000-4,000 mm-3 and a migration depth of 0.3-0.4 mm). The trilayer scaffold has represented a forwarding step from the previous studies, in attempting to better replicate a native heart valve structurally, mechanically, and biologically.

Original publication




Journal article


J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater

Publication Date





729 - 737


bending anisotropy, cardiosphere-derived cells, heart valve, tissue engineering