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  • Three-dimensional imaging of direct-written photonic structures.

    3 July 2018

    Third-harmonic generation microscopy has been used to analyze the morphology of photonic structures created using the femtosecond laser direct-write technique. Three-dimensional waveguide arrays and waveguide-Bragg gratings written in fused-silica and doped phosphate glass were investigated. A sensorless adaptive-optical system was used to correct the optical aberrations occurring in the sample and microscope system, which had a lateral resolution of less than 500 nm. This nondestructive testing method creates volume reconstructions of photonic devices and reveals details invisible to other linear microscopy and index profilometry techniques.

  • Adaptive optics for structured illumination microscopy.

    3 July 2018

    We implement wave front sensor-less adaptive optics in a structured illumination microscope. We investigate how the image formation process in this type of microscope is affected by aberrations. It is found that aberrations can be classified into two groups, those that affect imaging of the illumination pattern and those that have no influence on this pattern. We derive a set of aberration modes ideally suited to this application and use these modes as the basis for an efficient aberration correction scheme. Each mode is corrected independently through the sequential optimisation of an image quality metric. Aberration corrected imaging is demonstrated using fixed fluorescent specimens. Images are further improved using differential aberration imaging for reduction of background fluorescence.

  • Addressable microlens array for parallel laser microfabrication.

    3 July 2018

    Parallel processing in femtosecond-laser-based microfabrication is demonstrated using a microlens array in conjunction with a liquid-crystal spatial light modulator (SLM). A portion of the SLM is mapped onto each individual lenslet in the array and can be used to effectively switch foci on and off for fabrication. In addition, the technique allows for homogenizing the intensity of the array of foci and translating spots relative to their natural focus. The technique demonstrates the potential for high efficiency processing of aperiodic structures.

  • Effects of catecholamine stress on diastolic function and myocardial energetics in obesity

    3 July 2018

    Background-Obesity is characterized by impaired cardiac energetics, which may play a role in the development of diastolic dysfunction and inappropriate shortness of breath. We assessed whether, in obesity, derangement of energetics and diastolic function is further altered during acute cardiac stress. Methods and Results-Normal-weight (body mass index, 22±2 kg/m 2; n=9-17) and obese (body mass index, 39±7 kg/m 2; n=17-46) subjects underwent assessment of diastolic left ventricular function (cine magnetic resonance imaging volume-time curve analysis) and cardiac energetics (phosphocreatine/ATP ratio; P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy) at rest and during dobutamine stress (heart rate increase, 65±22% and 69±14%, respectively; P=0.61). At rest, obesity was associated with a 22% lower peak filling rate (P<0.001) and a 15% lower phosphocreatine/ATP ratio (1.73±0.40 versus 2.03±0.28; P=0.048). Peak filling rate correlated with fat mass, left ventricular mass, leptin, waist-to-hip ratio, and phosphocreatine/ATP ratio. On multivariable analysis, phosphocreatine/ATP was the only independent predictor of peak filling rate (β=0.50; P=0.03). During stress, a further reduction in phosphocreatine/ATP occurred in obese (from 1.73±0.40 to 1.53±0.50; P=0.03) but not in normal-weight (from 1.98±0.24 to 2.04±0.34; P=0.50) subject. For similar levels of inotropic stress, there were smaller increases in peak filling rate in obesity (38% versus 70%; P=0.01). Conclusions-In obesity, cardiac energetics are further deranged during inotropic stress, in association with continued diastolic dysfunction. Myocardial energetics may play a key role in the impairment of diastolic function in obesity. © 2012 American Heart Association, Inc.

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    3 July 2018