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  • Enhanced ER Ca2+ store filling by overexpression of SERCA2b promotes IP3-evoked puffs.

    6 March 2018

    Liberation of Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) through inositol trisphosphate receptors (IP(3)R) is modulated by the ER Ca(2+) content, and overexpression of SERCA2b to accelerate Ca(2+) sequestration into the ER has been shown to potentiate the frequency and amplitude of IP(3)-evoked Ca(2+) waves in Xenopus oocytes. Here, we examined the effects of SERCA overexpression on the elementary IP(3)-evoked puffs to elucidate whether ER [Ca(2+)] may modulate IP(3)R function via luminal regulatory sites in addition to simply determining the size of the available store and electrochemical driving force for Ca(2+) release. SERCA2b and Ca(2+) permeable nicotinic plasmalemmal channels were expressed in oocytes, and hyperpolarizing pulses were delivered to induce Ca(2+) influx and thereby load ER stores. Puffs evoked by photoreleased IP(3) were significantly potentiated in terms of numbers of responding sites, frequency and amplitude following transient Ca(2+) influx in SERCA-overexpressing cells, whereas little change was evident with SERCA overexpression alone or following Ca(2+) influx in control cells not overexpressing SERCA. Intriguingly, we observed the appearance of a new population of puffs that arose after long latencies and had prolonged durations supporting the notion of luminal regulation of IP(3)R gating kinetics.

  • Cell-permeant small-molecule modulators of NAADP-mediated Ca2+ release.

    7 February 2018

    Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP, 1) is the most potent intracellular Ca2+ mobilizing agent in important mammalian cells and tissues, yet the identity of the NAADP receptor is elusive. Significantly, the coenzyme NADP is completely inactive in this respect. Current studies are restricted by the paucity of any chemical probes beyond NAADP itself, and importantly, none is cell permeant. We report simple nicotinic acid-derived pyridinium analogs as low molecular weight compounds that (1) inhibit Ca2+ release via the NAADP receptor (IC50 approximately 15 microM - 1 mM), (2) compete with NAADP binding, (3) cross the cell membrane of sea urchin eggs to inhibit NAADP-evoked Ca2+ release, and (4) selectively ablate NAADP-dependent Ca2+ oscillations induced by the external gastric peptide hormone agonist cholecystokinin (CCK) in murine pancreatic acinar cells.

  • cADPR stimulates SERCA activity in Xenopus oocytes.

    12 March 2018

    The intracellular second messenger cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) induces Ca(2+) release through the activation of ryanodine receptors (RyRs). Moreover, it has been suggested that cADPR may serve an additional role to modulate sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) pump activity, but studies have been complicated by concurrent actions on RyR. Here, we explore the actions of cADPR in Xenopus oocytes, which lack RyRs. We examined the effects of cADPR on the sequestration of cytosolic Ca(2+) following Ca(2+) transients evoked by photoreleased inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP(3)), and by Ca(2+) influx through expressed nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) in the oocytes membrane. In both cases the decay of the Ca(2+) transients was accelerated by intracellular injection of a non-metabolizable analogue of cADPR, 3-Deaza-cADPR, and photorelease of cADPR from a caged precursor demonstrated that this action is rapid (a few s). The acceleration was abolished by pre-treatment with thapsigargin to block SERCA activity, and was inhibited by two specific antagonists of cADPR, 8-NH(2)-cADPR and 8-br-cADPR. We conclude that cADPR serves to modulate Ca(2+) sequestration by enhancing SERCA pump activity, in addition to its well-established action on RyRs to liberate Ca(2+).

  • NAADP as a second messenger: neither CD38 nor base-exchange reaction are necessary for in vivo generation of NAADP in myometrial cells.

    21 February 2018

    Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) has recently been shown to act as a second messenger controlling intracellular Ca(2+) responses in mammalian cells. Many questions remain regarding this signaling pathway, including the role of the ryanodine receptor (RyR) in NAADP-induced Ca(2+) transients. Furthermore, the exact metabolic pathway responsible for the synthesis of NAADP in vivo has not been determined. Here, we demonstrate that the NAADP mediated Ca(2+) release system is present in human myometrial cells. We also demonstrate that human myometrial cells use the NAADP second messenger system to generate intracellular Ca(2+) transients in response to histamine. It has been proposed in the past that the NAADP system in mammalian cells is dependent on the presence of functional RyRs. Here, we observed that the histamine-induced Ca(2+) transients are dependent on both the NAADP and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate signaling pathways but are independent of RyRs. The enzyme CD38 has been shown to catalyze the synthesis of NAADP in vitro by the base-exchange reaction. Furthermore, it has been proposed that this enzyme is responsible for the intracellular generation of NAADP in vivo. Using CD38 knockout mice, we observed that both the basal and histamine stimulated levels of NAADP are independent of CD38 and the base-exchange reaction. Our group is the first to demonstrate that NAADP is a second messenger for histamine-elicited Ca(2+) transients in human myometrial cells. Furthermore, the NAADP mediated mechanism in mammalian cells can be independent of RyRs and CD38. Our data provides novel insights into the understanding of the mechanism of action and metabolism of this new second messenger system.

  • Organelle selection determines agonist-specific Ca2+ signals in pancreatic acinar and beta cells.

    14 March 2018

    How different extracellular stimuli can evoke different spatiotemporal Ca2+ signals is uncertain. We have elucidated a novel paradigm whereby different agonists use different Ca2+-storing organelles ("organelle selection") to evoke unique responses. Some agonists select the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and others select lysosome-related (acidic) organelles, evoking spatial Ca2+ responses that mirror the organellar distribution. In pancreatic acinar cells, acetylcholine and bombesin exclusively select the ER Ca2+ store, whereas cholecystokinin additionally recruits a lysosome-related organelle. Similarly, in a pancreatic beta cell line MIN6, acetylcholine selects only the ER, whereas glucose mobilizes Ca2+ from a lysosome-related organelle. We also show that the key to organelle selection is the agonist-specific coupling messenger(s) such that the ER is selected by recruitment of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (or cADP-ribose), whereas lysosome-related organelles are selected by NAADP.

  • NAADP controls cross-talk between distinct Ca2+ stores in the heart.

    6 March 2018

    In cardiac muscle the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) plays a key role in the control of contraction, releasing Ca(2+) in response to Ca(2+) influx across the sarcolemma via voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels. Here we report evidence for an additional distinct Ca(2+) store and for actions of nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) to mobilize Ca(2+) from this store, leading in turn to enhanced Ca(2+) loading of the SR. Photoreleased NAADP increased Ca(2+) transients accompanying stimulated action potentials in ventricular myocytes. The effects were prevented by bafilomycin A (an H(+)-ATPase inhibitor acting on acidic Ca(2+) stores), by desensitizing concentrations of NAADP, and by ryanodine and thapsigargin to suppress SR function. Bafilomycin A also suppressed staining of acidic stores with Lysotracker Red without affecting SR integrity. Cytosolic application of NAADP by means of its membrane permeant acetoxymethyl ester increased myocyte contraction and the frequency and amplitude of Ca(2+) sparks, and these effects were inhibited by bafilomycin A. Effects of NAADP were associated with an increase in SR Ca(2+) load and appeared to be regulated by beta-adrenoreceptor stimulation. The observations are consistent with a novel role for NAADP in cardiac muscle mediated by Ca(2+) release from bafilomycin-sensitive acidic stores, which in turn enhances SR Ca(2+) release by increasing SR Ca(2+) load.

  • Regulation of L-type calcium channel and delayed rectifier potassium channel activity by p21-activated kinase-1 in guinea pig sinoatrial node pacemaker cells.

    1 February 2018

    Phosphorylation of ion channels plays an important role in the regulation of cardiac function, but signaling mechanisms controlling dephosphorylation are not well understood. We have tested the hypothesis that p(21)-activated kinase-1 (Pak1), a serine-threonine protein kinase regulated by Ras-related small G proteins, regulates sinoatrial node (SAN) ion channel activity through a mechanism involving protein phosphatase 2A. We report a novel role of Pak1-mediated signaling in attenuating isoproterenol-induced enhancement of L-type Ca(2+) current (I(CaL)) and delayed rectifier potassium current (I(K)) in guinea pig SAN pacemaker cells. We demonstrate that in guinea pig SAN: (1) there is abundant expression of endogenous Pak1 in pacemaker cells; (2) expression of constitutively active Pak1 depresses isoproterenol-induced upregulation of I(CaL) and I(K); (3) inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A increases the enhancement of I(K) and I(CaL) by isoproterenol in Ad-Pak1-infected cells; (4) protein phosphatase 2A coimmunoprecipitates with endogenous Pak1 in SAN tissue; and (5) expression of constitutively active Pak1 suppresses the chronotropic action of isoproterenol on pacemaker activity of intact SAN preparations. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that a Pak1 signaling pathway exists in cardiac pacemaker cells and that this novel pathway plays a role in the regulation of ion channel activity.

  • Role of NAADP and cADPR in the induction and maintenance of agonist-evoked Ca2+ spiking in mouse pancreatic acinar cells.

    6 March 2018

    Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) and cyclic adenosine diphosphate ribose (cADPR) were first demonstrated to mobilize Ca2+ in sea urchin eggs. In the absence of direct measurements of these messengers, pharmacological studies alone have implicated these molecules as intracellular second messengers for specific cell surface receptor agonists. We now report that in mouse pancreatic acinar cells, cholecystokinin, but not acetylcholine, evokes rapid and transient increases in NAADP levels in a concentration-dependent manner. In contrast, both cholecystokinin and acetylcholine-mediated production of cADPR followed a very different time course. The rapid and transient production of NAADP evoked by cholecystokinin precedes the onset of the Ca2+ signal and is consistent with a role for NAADP in the initiation of the Ca2+ response. Continued agonist-evoked Ca2+ spiking is maintained by prolonged elevations of cADPR levels through sensitization of Ca2+ -induced Ca2+ -release channels. This study represents the first direct comparison of NAADP and cADPR measurements, and the profound differences observed in their time courses provide evidence in support of distinct roles of these Ca2+ -mobilizing messengers in shaping specific Ca2+ signals during agonist stimulation.

  • Modulation of endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ store filling by cyclic ADP-ribose promotes inositol trisphosphate (IP3)-evoked Ca2+ signals.

    1 March 2018

    In addition to its well established function in activating Ca(2+) release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) through ryanodine receptors (RyR), the second messenger cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) also accelerates the activity of SERCA pumps, which sequester Ca(2+) into the ER. Here, we demonstrate a potential physiological role for cADPR in modulating cellular Ca(2+) signals via changes in ER Ca(2+) store content, by imaging Ca(2+) liberation through inositol trisphosphate receptors (IP(3)R) in Xenopus oocytes, which lack RyR. Oocytes were injected with the non-metabolizable analog 3-deaza-cADPR, and cytosolic [Ca(2+)] was transiently elevated by applying voltage-clamp pulses to induce Ca(2+) influx through expressed plasmalemmal nicotinic channels. We observed a subsequent potentiation of global Ca(2+) signals evoked by strong photorelease of IP(3), and increased numbers of local Ca(2+) puffs evoked by weaker photorelease. These effects were not evident with cADPR alone or following cytosolic Ca(2+) elevation alone, indicating that they did not arise through direct actions of cADPR or Ca(2+) on the IP(3)R, but likely resulted from enhanced ER store filling. Moreover, the appearance of a new population of puffs with longer latencies, prolonged durations, and attenuated amplitudes suggests that luminal ER Ca(2+) may modulate IP(3)R function, in addition to simply determining the size of the available store and the electrochemical driving force for release.

  • The ecto-enzyme CD38 is a nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) synthase that couples receptor activation to Ca2+ mobilization from lysosomes in pancreatic acinar cells.

    19 March 2018

    Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) is the most potent Ca(2+)-mobilizing intracellular messenger and is linked to a variety of stimuli and cell surface receptors. However, the enzyme responsible for endogenous NAADP synthesis in vivo is unknown, and it has been proposed that another enzyme differing from ADP-ribosyl cyclase family members may exist. The ecto-enzyme CD38, involved in many functions as diverse as cell proliferation and social behavior, represents an important alternative. In pancreatic acinar cells, the hormone cholecystokinin (CCK) stimulates NAADP production evoking Ca(2+) signals by discharging acidic Ca(2+) stores and leading to digestive enzyme secretion. From cells derived from CD38(-/-) mice, we provide the first physiological evidence that CD38 is required for endogenous NAADP generation in response to CCK stimulation. Furthermore, CD38 expression in CD38-deficient pancreatic AR42J cells remodels Ca(2+)-signaling pathways in these cells by restoring Ca(2+) mobilization from lysosomes during CCK-induced Ca(2+) signaling. In agreement with an intracellular site for messenger synthesis, we found that CD38 is expressed in endosomes. These CD38-containing vesicles, likely of endosomal origin, appear to be proximal to lysosomes but not co-localized with them. We propose that CD38 is an NAADP synthase required for coupling receptor activation to NAADP-mediated Ca(2+) release from lysosomal stores in pancreatic acinar cells.