Found 10211 matches for
The notion that invasive cancer is a product of somatic evolution is a well-established theory that can be modelled mathematically and demonstrated empirically from therapeutic responses. Somatic evolution is by no means deterministic, and ample opportunities exist to steer its trajectory towards cancer cell extinction. One such strategy is to alter the chemical microenvironment shared between host and cancer cells in a way that no longer favours the latter. Ever since the first description of the Warburg effect, acidosis has been recognised as a key chemical signature of the tumour microenvironment. Recent findings have suggested that responses to acidosis, arising through a process of selection and adaptation, give cancer cells a competitive advantage over the host. A surge of research efforts has attempted to understand the basis of this advantage and seek ways of exploiting it therapeutically. Here, we review key findings and place these in the context of a mathematical framework. Looking ahead, we highlight areas relating to cellular adaptation, selection, and heterogeneity that merit more research efforts in order to close in on the goal of exploiting tumour acidity in future therapies.
BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has resulted in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Lateral flow assays can detect anti-Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies to monitor transmission. However, standardized evaluation of their accuracy and tools to aid in interpreting results are needed. METHODS: We evaluated 20 IgG and IgM assays selected from available tests in April 2020. We evaluated the assays' performance using 56 pre-pandemic negative and 56 SARS-CoV-2-positive plasma samples, collected 10-40 days after symptom onset, confirmed by a molecular test and analyzed by an ultra-sensitive immunoassay. Finally, we developed a user-friendly web app to extrapolate the positive predictive values based on their accuracy and local prevalence. RESULTS: Combined IgG + IgM sensitivities ranged from 33.9 to 94.6%, while combined specificities ranged from 92.6 to 100%. The highest sensitivities were detected in Lumiquick for IgG (98.2%), BioHit for both IgM (96.4%), and combined IgG + IgM sensitivity (94.6%). Furthermore, 11 LFAs and 8 LFAs showed perfect specificity for IgG and IgM, respectively, with 15 LFAs showing perfect combined IgG + IgM specificity. Lumiquick had the lowest estimated limit-of-detection (LOD) (0.1 μg/mL), followed by a similar LOD of 1.5 μg/mL for CareHealth, Cellex, KHB, and Vivachek. CONCLUSION: We provide a public resource of the accuracy of select lateral flow assays with potential for home testing. The cost-effectiveness, scalable manufacturing process, and suitability for self-testing makes LFAs an attractive option for monitoring disease prevalence and assessing vaccine responsiveness. Our web tool provides an easy-to-use interface to demonstrate the impact of prevalence and test accuracy on the positive predictive values.
© Copyright © 2020 Bryant, Hu, Carlyle, Arnold, Frosch, Das, Hyman and Bennett. Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is associated with neuropathological changes, including aggregation of tau neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) and amyloid-beta plaques. Mounting evidence indicates that vascular dysfunction also plays a key role in the pathogenesis and progression of AD, in part through endothelial dysfunction. Based on findings in animal models that tau pathology induces vascular abnormalities and cellular senescence, we hypothesized that tau pathology in the human AD brain leads to vascular senescence. To explore this hypothesis, we isolated intact microvessels from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC, BA9) from 16 subjects with advanced Braak stages (Braak V/VI, B3) and 12 control subjects (Braak 0/I/II, B1), and quantified expression of 42 genes associated with senescence, cell adhesion, and various endothelial cell functions. Genes associated with endothelial senescence and leukocyte adhesion, including SERPINE1 (PAI-1), CXCL8 (IL8), CXCL1, CXCL2, ICAM-2, and TIE1, were significantly upregulated in B3 microvessels after adjusting for sex and cerebrovascular pathology. In particular, the senescence-associated secretory phenotype genes SERPINE1 and CXCL8 were upregulated by more than 2-fold in B3 microvessels after adjusting for sex, cerebrovascular pathology, and age at death. Protein quantification data from longitudinal plasma samples for a subset of 13 (n = 9 B3, n = 4 B1) subjects showed no significant differences in plasma senescence or adhesion-associated protein levels, suggesting that these changes were not associated with systemic vascular alterations. Future investigations of senescence biomarkers in both the peripheral and cortical vasculature could further elucidate links between tau pathology and vascular changes in human AD.
Copyright: © 2019 American Society for Clinical Investigation BACKGROUND. There is growing evidence to suggest that the brain is an important target for insulin action and that states of insulin resistance may extend to the CNS, with detrimental effects on cognitive functioning. Although the effect of systemic insulin resistance on peripheral organs is well studied, the degree to which insulin affects brain function in vivo remains unclear. METHODS. This randomized, single-blinded, 2-way–crossover, sham-controlled, pilot study determined the effects of hyperinsulinemia on functional MRI (fMRI) brain activation during a 2-back working memory task in 9 healthy older adults (aged 57–79 years). Each participant underwent 2 clamp procedures (an insulin infusion and a saline placebo infusion, with normoglycemia maintained during both conditions) to examine the effects of hyperinsulinemia on task performance and associated blood oxygen level–dependent (BOLD) signal using fMRI. RESULTS. Hyperinsulinemia (compared with saline control) was associated with an increase in both the spatial extent and relative strength of task-related BOLD signal during the 2-back task. Further, the degree of increased task-related activation in select brain regions correlated with greater systemic insulin sensitivity as well as decreased reaction times and performance accuracy between experimental conditions. CONCLUSION. Together, these findings provide evidence of insulin action in the CNS among older adults during periods of sustained cognitive demand, with the greatest effects noted for individuals with highest systemic insulin sensitivity. FUNDING. This work was funded by the NIH (5R21AG051958, 2016).
The Role of Inflammation after Surgery for Elders (RISE) study: Study design, procedures, and cohort profile
© 2019 The Authors Introduction: The Role of Inflammation after Surgery for Elders study correlates novel inflammatory markers measured in blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) assays, and [11C]-PBR28 positron-emission tomography imaging. Methods: This study involved a prospective cohort design with patients who underwent elective hip and knee arthroplasty under spinal anesthesia. Sixty-five adults participated with their family members. Inflammatory biomarker assays were measured preoperatively on day 1 and postoperatively at one month. Results: On average, participants were 75 years old, and 72% were female. 54% underwent total knee arthroplasty, and 46% underwent total hip arthroplasty. The mean Modified Mini-Mental State (3MS) Examination score was 89.3; four patients (6%) scored ≤77 points. Plasma assays were completed in 63 (97%) participants, cerebrospinal fluid assays in 61 (94%), and PET imaging in 44 (68%). Discussion: This complex study presents an innovative effort to correlate peripheral and central inflammatory biomarkers before and after major surgery in older adults. Strengths include collecting concurrent blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and positron-emission tomography with detailed clinical characterization of delirium, cognition, and functional status.
© 2017 The Authors. Introduction: An animal model of late-onset Alzheimer’s disease is needed to research what causes degeneration in the absence of dominant genetic insults and why the association cortex is particularly vulnerable to degeneration. Methods: We studied the progression of tau and amyloid cortical pathology in the aging rhesus macaque using immunoelectron microscopy and biochemical assays. Results: Aging macaques exhibited the same qualitative pattern and sequence of tau and amyloid cortical pathology as humans, reaching Braak stage III/IV. Pathology began in the young-adult entorhinal cortex with protein kinase A-phosphorylation of tau, progressing to fibrillation with paired helical filaments and mature tangles in oldest animals. Tau pathology in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex paralleled but lagged behind the entorhinal cortex, not afflicting the primary visual cortex. Discussion: The aging rhesus macaque provides the long-sought animal model for exploring the etiology of late-onset Alzheimer’s disease and for testing preventive strategies.
The role of genes involved in stress, neural plasticity, and brain circuitry in depressive phenotypes: Convergent findings in a mouse model of neglect
© 2016 Early life neglect increases risk for the development of psychopathologies during childhood and adulthood, including depression and anxiety disorders. We recently reported epigenetic changes in DNA derived from saliva in three genes predicted depression in a cohort of maltreated children: DNA-binding protein inhibitor ID-3 (ID3), Glutamate NMDA Receptor (GRIN1), and Tubulin Polymerization Promoting Protein (TPPP). To validate the role of these genes in depression risk, secondary analyses were conducted of gene expression data obtained from medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) tissue of mice subjected to a model of maternal neglect which included maternal separation and early weaning (MSEW). Anxiety and depression-like phenotype data derived using the elevated plus maze (EPM) and forced swimming test (FST), respectively, were also available for secondary analyses. Behavioral tests were conducted in MSEW and control adult male mice when they were between 65 and 80 days old. ID3, GRIN1 and TPPP gene expression in the mPFC were found to significantly predict behavioral differences in the EPM and FST. These results further support the role of these genes in the etiology of depressive and anxiety phenotypes following early life stress.
The pattern of neurodegeneration in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is very distinctive: neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) composed of hyperphosphorylated tau selectively affect pyramidal neurons of the aging association cortex that interconnect extensively through glutamate synapses on dendritic spines. In contrast, primary sensory cortices have few NFTs, even in late-stage disease. Understanding this selective vulnerability, and why advancing age is such a high risk factor for the degenerative process, may help to reveal disease etiology and provide targets for intervention. Our study has revealed age-related increase in cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) phosphorylation of tau at serine 214 (pS214-tau) in monkey dorsolateral prefrontal association cortex (dlPFC), which specifically targets spine synapses and the Ca 2+ -storing spine apparatus. This increase is mirrored by loss of phosphodiesterase 4A from the spine apparatus, consistent with increase in cAMP-Ca 2+ signaling in aging spines. Phosphorylated tau was not detected in primary visual cortex, similar to the pattern observed in AD. We also report electron microscopic evidence of previously unidentified vesicular trafficking of phosphorylated tau in normal association cortex-in axons in young dlPFC vs. in spines in aged dlPFC-consistent with the transneuronal lesion spread reported in genetic rodent models. pS214-Tau was not observed in normal aged mice, suggesting that it arises with the evolutionary expansion of corticocortical connections in primates, crossing the threshold into NFTs and degeneration in humans. Thus, the cAMP-Ca 2+ signaling mechanisms, needed for flexibly modulating network strength in young association cortex, confer vulnerability to degeneration when dysregulated with advancing age.
Using a novel mouse model of early life neglect and abuse (ENA) based on maternal separation with early weaning, George et al. (BMC Neurosci 11:123, 2010) demonstrated behavioral abnormalities in adult mice, and Bordner et al. (Front Psychiatry 2(18):1-18, 2011) described concomitant changes in mRNA and protein expression. Using the same model, here we report neuroanatomical changes that include smaller brain size and abnormal inter-hemispheric asymmetry, decreases in cortical thickness, abnormalities in subcortical structures, and white matter disorganization and atrophy most severely affecting the left hemisphere. Because of the similarities between the neuroanatomical changes observed in our mouse model and those described in human survivors of ENA, this novel animal model is potentially useful for studies of human ENA too costly or cumbersome to be carried out in primates. Moreover, our current knowledge of the mouse genome makes this model particularly suited for targeted anatomical, molecular, and pharmacological experimentation not yet possible in other species. © Springer-Verlag 2011.
Hyperpolarization activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) potassium channels are implicated in the control of neuronal excitability and are expressed widely in the brain. HCN4 is expressed in brain regions relevant to mood and anxiety disorders including specific thalamic nuclei, the basolateral amygdala, and the midbrain dopamine system. We therefore examined the association of HCN4 with a group of mood and anxiety disorders. We genotyped nine tag SNPs in the HCN4 gene using Sequenom iPLEX Gold technology in 285 Caucasian patients with DSM-IV mood disorders and/or obsessive compulsive disorder and 384 Caucasian controls. HCN4 polymorphisms were analyzed using single marker and haplotype-based association methods. Three SNPs showed nominal association in our population (rs12905211, rs3859014, rs498005). SNP rs12905211 maintained significance after Bonferroni correction, with allele T and haplotype CTC overrepresented in cases. These findings suggest HCN4 as a genetic susceptibility factor for mood and anxiety disorders; however, these results will require replication using a larger sample. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) is well established as a genetic risk factor across a spectrum of psychiatric disorders, a role supported by a growing body of biological studies, making the DISC1 protein interaction network an attractive therapeutic target. By contrast, there is a relative deficit of structural information to relate to the myriad biological functions of DISC1. Here, we critically appraise the available bioinformatics and biochemical analyses on DISC1 and key interacting proteins, and integrate this with the genetic and biological data. We review, analyze, and make predictions regarding the secondary structure and propensity for disordered regions within DISC1, its protein-interaction domains, subcellular localization motifs, and the structural and functional implications of common and ultrarare DISC1 variants associated with major mental illness. We discuss signaling pathways of high pharmacological potential wherein DISC1 participates, including those involving phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) and glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3). These predictions and priority areas can inform future research in the translational and potentially guide the therapeutic processes. © 2011 American Chemical Society.
Functional genomic and proteomic analysis reveals disruption of myelin-related genes and translation in a mouse model of early life neglect
Early life neglect is an important public health problem which can lead to lasting psychological dysfunction. Good animal models are necessary to understand the mechanisms responsible for the behavioral and anatomical pathology that results. We recently described a novel model of early life neglect, maternal separation with early weaning (MSEW), that produces behavioral changes in the mouse that persist into adulthood. To begin to understand the mechanism by which MSEW leads to these changes we applied cDNA microarray, next-generation RNAsequencing (RNA-seq), label-free proteomics, multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) proteomics, and methylation analysis to tissue samples obtained from medial prefrontal cortex to determine the molecular changes induced by MSEW that persist into adulthood. The results show that MSEW leads to dysregulation of markers of mature oligodendrocytes and genes involved in protein translation and other categories, an apparent downward biasing of translation, and methylation changes in the promoter regions of selected dysregulated genes. These findings are likely to prove useful in understanding the mechanism by which early life neglect affects brain structure, cognition, and behavior. © 2011 Bordner, George, Carlyle, Duque, Kitchen, Lam, Colangelo, Stone, Abbott, Mane, Nairn and Simen.
Parallel declines in cognition, motivation, and locomotion in aging mice: Association with immune gene upregulation in the medial prefrontal cortex
Aging in humans is associated with parallel changes in cognition, motivation, and motoric performance. Based on the human aging literature, we hypothesized that this constellation of age-related changes is mediated by the medial prefrontal cortex and that it would be observed in aging mice. Toward this end, we performed detailed assessments of cognition, motivation, and motoric behavior in aging mice. We assessed behavioral and cognitive performance in C57Bl/6 mice aged 6, 18, and 24 months, and followed this with microarray analysis of tissue from the medial prefrontal cortex and analysis of serum cytokine levels. Multivariate modeling of these data suggested that the age-related changes in cognition, motivation, motor performance, and prefrontal immune gene expression were highly correlated. Peripheral cytokine levels were also correlated with these variables, but less strongly than measures of prefrontal immune gene upregulation. To determine whether the observed immune gene expression changes were due to prefrontal microglial cells, we isolated CD11b-positive cells from the prefrontal cortex and subject them to next-generation RNA sequencing. Many of the immune changes present in whole medial prefrontal cortex were enriched in this cell population. These data suggest that, as in humans, cognition, motivation, and motoric performance in the mouse change together with age and are strongly associated with CNS immune gene upregulation. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.
Pka phosphorylation of NDE1 is DISC1/PDE4 dependent and modulates its interaction with LIS1 and NDEL1
Nuclear distribution factor E-homolog 1 (NDE1), Lissencephaly 1 (LIS1), and NDE-like 1 (NDEL1) together participate in essential neurodevelopmental processes, including neuronal precursor proliferation and differentiation, neuronal migration, and neurite outgrowth. NDE1/LIS1/NDEL1 interacts with Disrupted in Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) and the cAMP-hydrolyzing enzyme phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4). DISC1, PDE4, NDE1, and NDEL1 have each been implicated as genetic risk factors for major mental illness. Here, we demonstrate that DISC1 and PDE4 modulate NDE1 phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) and identify a novel PKA substrate site on NDE1 at threonine-131 (T131). Homology modeling predicts that phosphorylation at T131 modulates NDE1-LIS1 and NDE1-NDEL1 interactions, which we confirm experimentally. DISC1-PDE4 interaction thus modulates organization of the NDE1/ NDEL1/LIS1 complex. T131-phosphorylated NDE1 is present at the postsynaptic density, in proximal axons, within the nucleus, and at the centrosome where it becomes substantially enriched during mitosis. Mutation of the NDE1 T131 site to mimic PKA phosphorylation inhibits neurite outgrowth. Thus PKA-dependent phosphorylation of the NDE1/LIS1/NDEL1 complex is DISC1-PDE4 modulated and likely to regulate its neural functions. © 2011 the authors.
Nuclear Distribution Factor E Homolog 1 (NDE1) and NDE-Like 1 (NDEL1) are highly homologous mammalian proteins. However, whereas NDEL1 is well studied, there is remarkably little known about NDE1. We demonstrate the presence of multiple isoforms of both NDE1 and NDEL1 in the brain, showing that NDE1 binds directly to multiple isoforms of Disrupted in Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1), and to itself. We also show that NDE1 can complex with NDEL1. Together these results predict a high degree of complexity of DISC1-mediated regulation of neuronal activity. © 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) is a risk factor for schizophrenia and other major mental illnesses. Its protein binding partners include the Nuclear Distribution Factor E Homologs (NDE1 and NDEL1), LIS1, and phosphodiesterases 4B and 4D (PDE4B and PDE4D). We demonstrate that NDE1, NDEL1 and LIS1, together with their binding partner dynein, associate with DISC1, PDE4B and PDE4D within the cell, and provide evidence that this complex is present at the centrosome. LIS1 and NDEL1 have been previously suggested to be synaptic, and we now demonstrate localisation of DISC1, NDE1, and PDE4B at synapses in cultured neurons. NDE1 is phosphorylated by cAMP-dependant Protein Kinase A (PKA), whose activity is, in turn, regulated by the cAMP hydrolysis activity of phosphodiesterases, including PDE4. We propose that DISC1 acts as an assembly scaffold for all of these proteins and that the NDE1/NDEL1/LIS1/dynein complex is modulated by cAMP levels via PKA and PDE4. © 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.