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Fundamental research into early circuits of the neocortex provides insight into the etiology of mental illness. In this issue of Neuron, Chini et al. (2020) probe the consequences of combined genetic and environmental perturbation on emergent network activity in the prefrontal cortex, identifying a window for possible intervention.
Dmrt5 (Dmrta2) and Dmrt3 are key regulators of cortical patterning and progenitor proliferation and differentiation. In this study, we show an altered apical to intermediate progenitor transition, with a delay in SP neurogenesis and premature birth of Ctip2+ cortical neurons in Dmrt5-/- mice. In addition to the cortical progenitors, DMRT5 protein appears present in postmitotic subplate (SP) and marginal zone neurons together with some migrating cortical neurons. We observed the altered split of preplate and the reduced SP and disturbed radial migration of cortical neurons into cortical plate in Dmrt5-/- brains and demonstrated an increase in the proportion of multipolar cells in primary neuronal cultures from Dmrt5-/- embryonic brains. Dmrt5 affects cortical development with specific time sensitivity that we described in two conditional mice with slightly different deletion time. We only observed a transient SP phenotype at E15.5, but not by E18.5 after early (Dmrt5lox/lox;Emx1Cre), but not late (Dmrt5lox/lox;NestinCre) deletion of Dmrt5. SP was less disturbed in Dmrt5lox/lox;Emx1Cre and Dmrt3-/- brains than in Dmrt5-/- and affects dorsomedial cortex more than lateral and caudal cortex. Our study demonstrates a novel function of Dmrt5 in the regulation of early SP formation and radial cortical neuron migration. SUMMARY STATEMENT: Our study demonstrates a novel function of Dmrt5 in regulating marginal zone and subplate formation and migration of cortical neurons to cortical plate.
Potential for noninvasive assessment of lung inhomogeneity using highly precise, highly time-resolved measurements of gas exchange.
Inhomogeneity in the lung impairs gas exchange and can be an early marker of lung disease. We hypothesized that highly precise measurements of gas exchange contain sufficient information to quantify many aspects of the inhomogeneity noninvasively. Our aim was to explore whether one parameterization of lung inhomogeneity could both fit such data and provide reliable parameter estimates. A mathematical model of gas exchange in an inhomogeneous lung was developed, containing inhomogeneity parameters for compliance, vascular conductance, and dead space, all relative to lung volume. Inputs were respiratory flow, cardiac output, and the inspiratory and pulmonary arterial gas compositions. Outputs were expiratory and pulmonary venous gas compositions. All values were specified every 10 ms. Some parameters were set to physiologically plausible values. To estimate the remaining unknown parameters and inputs, the model was embedded within a nonlinear estimation routine to minimize the deviations between model and data for CO2, O2, and N2 flows during expiration. Three groups, each of six individuals, were studied: young (20-30 yr); old (70-80 yr); and patients with mild to moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Each participant undertook a 15-min measurement protocol six times. For all parameters reflecting inhomogeneity, highly significant differences were found between the three participant groups ( P < 0.001, ANOVA). Intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.96, 0.99, and 0.94 for the parameters reflecting inhomogeneity in deadspace, compliance, and vascular conductance, respectively. We conclude that, for the particular participants selected, highly repeatable estimates for parameters reflecting inhomogeneity could be obtained from noninvasive measurements of respiratory gas exchange. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study describes a new method, based on highly precise measures of gas exchange, that quantifies three distributions that are intrinsic to the lung. These distributions represent three fundamentally different types of inhomogeneity that together give rise to ventilation-perfusion mismatch and result in impaired gas exchange. The measurement technique has potentially broad clinical applicability because it is simple for both patient and operator, it does not involve ionizing radiation, and it is completely noninvasive.
Intravenous iron delivers a sustained (8-week) lowering of pulmonary artery pressure during exercise in healthy older humans.
In older individuals, pulmonary artery pressure rises markedly during exercise, probably due in part to increased pulmonary vascular resistance and in part to an increase in left-heart filling pressure. Older individuals also show more marked pulmonary vascular response to hypoxia at rest. Treatment with intravenous iron reduces the rise in pulmonary artery pressure observed during hypoxia. Here, we test the hypothesis that intravenous iron administration may also attenuate the rise in pulmonary artery pressure with exercise in older individuals. In a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled physiology study in 32 healthy participants aged 50-80 years, we explored the hypothesis that iron administration would deliver a fall in systolic pulmonary artery pressure (SPAP) during moderate cycling exercise (20 min duration; increase in heart rate of 30 min-1 ) and a change in maximal cycling exercise capacity ( V ˙ O 2 m a x ). Participants were studied before, and at 3 h to 8 weeks after, infusion. SPAP was measured using Doppler echocardiography. Iron administration resulted in marked changes in indices of iron homeostasis over 8 weeks, but no significant change in hemoglobin concentration or inflammatory markers. Resting SPAP was also unchanged, but SPAP during exercise was lower by ~3 mmHg in those receiving iron (P < 0.0001). This effect persisted for 8 weeks. Although V ˙ O 2 m a x remained unaffected in the iron-replete healthy participants studied here, this study demonstrates for the first time the ability of intravenous iron supplementation to reduce systolic pulmonary artery pressure during exercise.
<ns5:p><ns5:bold>Background:</ns5:bold> The K<ns5:sub>ATP</ns5:sub> channel plays a key role in glucose homeostasis by coupling metabolically generated changes in ATP to insulin secretion from pancreatic beta-cells. Gain-of-function mutations in either the pore-forming (Kir6.2) or regulatory (SUR1) subunit of this channel are a common cause of transient neonatal diabetes mellitus (TNDM), in which diabetes presents shortly after birth but remits within the first few years of life, only to return in later life. The reasons behind this time dependence are unclear.</ns5:p><ns5:p> <ns5:bold>Methods:</ns5:bold> In an attempt to understand the mechanism behind diabetes remission and relapse, we generated mice expressing the common TNDM mutation SUR1-R1183W. We employed Cre/LoxP technology for both inducible and constitutive expression of SUR1-R1183W specifically in mouse beta-cells, followed by investigation of their phenotype using glucose tolerance tests and insulin secretion from isolated islets. </ns5:p><ns5:p> <ns5:bold>Results:</ns5:bold> We found that the R1183W mutation impaired inhibition of K<ns5:sub>ATP</ns5:sub> channels by ATP when heterologously expressed in human embryonic kidney cells. However, neither induced nor constitutive expression of SUR1-R1183W in mice resulted in changes in blood glucose homeostasis, compared to littermate controls. When challenged with a high fat diet, female mice expressing SUR1-R1183W showed increased weight gain, elevated blood glucose and impaired glycaemic control, but glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from pancreatic islets appeared unchanged.</ns5:p><ns5:p> <ns5:bold>Conclusions:</ns5:bold> The mouse model of TNDM did not recapitulate the human phenotype. We discuss multiple potential reasons why this might be the case. Based on our findings, we recommend future TNDM mouse models employing a gain-of-function SUR1 mutation should be created using the minimally invasive CRISPR/Cas technology, which avoids many potential pitfalls associated with the Cre/LoxP system.</ns5:p>
Adaptive optics are becoming a valuable tool for laser processing, providing enhanced functionality and flexibility for a range of systems. Using a single adaptive element, it is possible to correct for aberrations introduced when focusing inside the workpiece, tailor the focal intensity distribution for the particular fabrication task and/or provide parallelisation to reduce processing times. This is particularly promising for applications using ultrafast lasers for three-dimensional fabrication. We review recent developments in adaptive laser processing, including methods and applications, before discussing prospects for the future.
We present a scheme for active compensation of complex extrinsic polarization perturbations introduced into an optical system. Imaging polarimeter is used to measure the polarization state across a beam profile and a liquid crystal spatial light modulator controls the polarization of the input beam. A sequence of measurements permits determination of the birefringence properties of a perturbing specimen. The necessary correction is calculated and fed back to the polarization modulator to compensate for the polarization perturbation. The system capabilities are demonstrated on a range of birefringent specimens.
© 2019 The Authors There is significant interest in the generation of complex vector beams, where the combined polarisation and phase profile is chosen to have particular properties. These beams have often been implemented in an adaptable manner using liquid crystal spatial light modulators (SLMs). Existing methods have concentrated mainly on the generation of these vector beams from a fixed polarisation state, but there are also applications were conversion between vectorial states is necessary. We discuss the limitations of existing SLM-based modulation systems for conversion between arbitrary vectorial states. Three degrees of freedom are required in principle for transition between two arbitrary states. We show that a three-SLM system can provide conversion between two arbitrary polarisation states, but cannot necessarily provide a full 2π radian phase modulation. Hence, we propose a design using four SLMs that removes these limitations on the phase modulation.
Erratum to: 36th International Symposium on Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine: Brussels, Belgium. 15-18 March 2016.
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1186/s13054-016-1208-6.].
Liver-Specific, but Not Retina-Specific, Hepcidin Knockout Causes Retinal Iron Accumulation and Degeneration.
The liver secretes hepcidin (Hepc) into the bloodstream to reduce blood iron levels. Hepc accomplishes this by triggering degradation of the only known cellular iron exporter ferroportin in the gut, macrophages, and liver. We previously demonstrated that systemic Hepc knockout (HepcKO) mice, which have high serum iron, develop retinal iron overload and degeneration. However, it was unclear whether this is caused by high blood iron levels or, alternatively, retinal iron influx that would normally be regulated by retina-produced Hepc. To address this question, retinas of liver-specific and retina-specific HepcKO mice were studied. Liver-specific HepcKO mice had elevated blood and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) iron levels and increased free (labile) iron levels in the retina, despite an intact blood-retinal barrier. This led to RPE hypertrophy associated with lipofuscin-laden lysosome accumulation. Photoreceptors also degenerated focally. In contrast, there was no change in retinal or RPE iron levels or degeneration in the retina-specific HepcKO mice. These data indicate that high blood iron levels can lead to retinal iron accumulation and degeneration. High blood iron levels can occur in patients with hereditary hemochromatosis or result from use of iron supplements or multiple blood transfusions. Our results suggest that high blood iron levels may cause or exacerbate retinal disease.
Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are produced during embryogenesis from the floor of the dorsal aorta. The localization of HSCs is dependent on the presence of instructive signals on the ventral side of the vessel. The nature of the extrinsic molecular signals that control the aortic haematopoietic niche is currently poorly understood. Here we demonstrate a novel requirement for FGF signalling in the specification of aortic haemogenic endothelium. Our results demonstrate that FGF signalling normally acts to repress BMP activity in the subaortic mesenchyme through transcriptional inhibition of bmp4, as well as through activation of two BMP antagonists, noggin2 and gremlin1a. Taken together, these findings demonstrate a key role for FGF signalling in establishment of the developmental HSC niche via its regulation of BMP activity in the subaortic mesenchyme. These results should help inform strategies to recapitulate the development of HSCs in vitro from pluripotent precursors.