Compartmentalization and Regulation of Cyclic Nucleotide Signaling in The CNS
Zaccolo M., Stangherlin A.
© 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. In the central nervous system (CNS), the second messengers cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) transduce the biochemical and electrical signals of several hormones and neurotransmitters. By integrating these signals, cAMP and cGMP regulate important neuronal functions, such as neuronal excitability, axon guidance, neurotransmitters release, metabolism, and learning and memory processes, via activation of multiple parallel signaling pathways. How such an intricate pattern of signaling cascades can achieve specificity of response has been questioned for a long time. This chapter describes the mechanisms that control cell signaling via tight spatial compartmentalization of receptors, cyclases, second messengers, and their kinase effectors, as well as of their molecular targets.