Cookies on this website
We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Continue' we will assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you will not see this message again. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Reversible post-translational protein modifications such as SUMOylation add complexity to cardiac transcriptional regulation. The homeodomain transcription factor Nkx2-5/Csx is essential for heart specification and morphogenesis. It has been previously suggested that SUMOylation of lysine 51 (K51) of Nkx2-5 is essential for its DNA binding and transcriptional activation. Here, we confirm that SUMOylation strongly enhances Nkx2-5 transcriptional activity and that residue K51 of Nkx2-5 is a SUMOylation target. However, in a range of cultured cell lines we find that a point mutation of K51 to arginine (K51R) does not affect Nkx2-5 activity or DNA binding, suggesting the existence of additional Nkx2-5 SUMOylated residues. Using biochemical assays, we demonstrate that Nkx2-5 is SUMOylated on at least one additional site, and this is the predominant site in cardiac cells. The second site is either non-canonical or a "shifting" site, as mutation of predicted consensus sites and indeed every individual lysine in the context of the K51R mutation failed to impair Nkx2-5 transcriptional synergism with SUMO, or its nuclear localization and DNA binding. We also observe SUMOylation of Nkx2-5 cofactors, which may be critical to Nkx2-5 regulation. Our data reveal highly complex regulatory mechanisms driven by SUMOylation to modulate Nkx2-5 activity. © 2011 Costa et al.

Original publication

DOI

10.1371/journal.pone.0024812

Type

Journal article

Journal

PLoS ONE

Publication Date

12/09/2011

Volume

6