Obese subjects show sex-specific differences in right ventricular hypertrophy.
Rider OJ., Lewis AJ., Lewandowski AJ., Ntusi N., Nethononda R., Petersen SE., Francis JM., Pitcher A., Banerjee R., Leeson P., Neubauer S.
BACKGROUND: As right ventricular (RV) remodeling in obesity remains underinvestigated, and the impact of left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction on RV hypertrophy is unknown, we aimed to investigate whether (1) sex-specific patterns of RV remodeling exist in obesity and (2) LV diastolic dysfunction in obesity is related to RV hypertrophy. METHODS AND RESULTS: Seven hundred thirty-nine subjects (women, n=345; men, n=394) without identifiable cardiovascular risk factors (body mass index [BMI], 15.3-59.2 kg/m2) underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance (1.5 T) to measure RV mass (g), RV end-diastolic volume (mL), RV mass/volume ratio, and LV diastolic peak filling rate (mL/s). All subjects were normotensive (average, 119±11/73±8 mm Hg), normoglycaemic (4.8±0.5 mmol/L), and normocholesterolaemic (4.8±0.9 mmol/L) at the time of scanning. Across both sexes, there was a moderately strong positive correlation between BMI and RV mass (men, +0.8 g per BMI point increase; women, +1.0 g per BMI point increase; both P<0.001). Whereas women exhibited RV cavity dilatation (RV end-diastolic volume, +1.0 mL per BMI point increase; P<0.001), BMI was not correlated with RV end-diastolic volume in men (R=0.04; P=0.51). Concentric RV remodeling was present in both sexes, with RV mass/volume ratio being positively correlated to BMI (men, R=0.41; women, R=0.51; both P<0.001). Irrespective of sex, the LV peak filling rate was negatively correlated with both RV mass (men, R=-0.43; women, R=-0.44; both P<0.001) and RV mass/volume ratio (men, R=-0.37; women, R=-0.35; both P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: A sex difference in RV remodeling exists in obesity. Whereas men exhibit concentric RV remodeling, women exhibit a mixed pattern of eccentric and concentric remodeling. Regardless of sex, reduced LV diastolic function is associated with concentric RV remodeling.