The transactive response DNA binding protein (TDP-43) is a major component of the characteristic neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions seen in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Furthermore, pathogenic mutations in the gene encoding TDP-43, TARDBP, are found in sporadic and familial ALS cases. To study the molecular mechanisms of cellular toxicity due to TDP-43 mutations we generated a novel in vitro cellular model using a fluorescently tagged human genomic TARDBP locus carrying one of two ALS-associated mutations, A382T or M337V, which were used to generate site-specific bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) human stable cell lines and BAC transgenic mice. In cell lines and primary motor neurons in culture, TDP-M337V mislocalized to the cytoplasm more frequently than wild-type TDP (wt-TDP) and TDP-A382T, an effect potentiated by oxidative stress. Expression of mutant TDP-M337V correlated with increased apoptosis detected by cleaved caspase-3 staining. Cells expressing mislocalized TDP-M337V spontaneously developed cytoplasmic aggregates, while for TDP-A382T aggregates were only revealed after endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induced by the calcium-modifying drug thapsigargin. Lowering Ca(2+) concentration in the ER of wt-TDP cells partially recapitulated the effect of pathogenic mutations by increasing TDP-43 cytoplasmic mislocalization, suggesting Ca(2+) dysregulation as a potential mediator of pathology through alterations in Bcl-2 protein levels. Ca(2+) signaling from the ER was impaired in immortalized cells and primary neurons carrying TDP-43 mutations, with a 50% reduction in the levels of luminal ER Ca(2+) stores content and delayed Ca(2+) release compared with cells carrying wt-TDP. The deficits in Ca(2+) release in human cells correlated with the upregulation of Bcl-2 and siRNA-mediated knockdown of Bcl-2 restored the amplitude of Ca(2+) oscillations in TDP-M337V cells. These results suggest that TDP-43 pathogenic mutations elicit cytoplasmic mislocalization of TDP-43 and Bcl-2 mediated ER Ca(2+) signaling dysregulation.
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Bcl-2, Ca(2+) dysregulation, Motor neurons, TDP-43, Animals, Apoptosis, Calcium, Caspase 3, Cells, Cultured, Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial, Cytoplasm, DNA-Binding Proteins, Endoplasmic Reticulum, HEK293 Cells, Humans, Mice, Transgenic, Motor Neurons, Mutation, Missense, Oxidative Stress, Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2, Spinal Cord