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The fru4 allele of the sex determination gene fruitless is induced by insertion of a P[lacZ,ry+] enhancer trap element. This insert also acts to disrupt expression of the fru P1 promoter derived male-specific proteins, consequently impairing male courtship behavior. fru4 maps less than 2 kb upstream of the fru P3 promoter, whose function is essential for viability. We replaced this insert with a GAL4 element, P[GAL4,w+], recovering two lines with insertions in opposite orientations at the locus, one of which demonstrated fru-specific mutant phenotypes. Reporter expression of these lines recapitulated that of P3- and P4-derived proteins which, when correlated with a developmental and tissue specific survey of fru promoters' activities, uncovered a previously unsuspected complexity of fru regulation. These novel fru alleles provide the tools for manipulation of fru-expressing cells, allowing the consequent effects to be related back to specific fru functions and the regulatory units controlling these activities.

Original publication




Journal article



Publication Date





236 - 246


Alleles, Animals, Courtship, Drosophila Proteins, Drosophila melanogaster, Enhancer Elements, Genetic, Female, Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Fushi Tarazu Transcription Factors, Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental, Gene Targeting, Genes, Insect, Homozygote, Male, Microscopy, Confocal, Mutation, Nerve Tissue Proteins, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Promoter Regions, Genetic, Recombinant Fusion Proteins, Sex Determination Processes, Trans-Activators, Transcription Factors, Transcription, Genetic