The relationship between mental health, sleep quality and the immunogenicity of COVID-19 vaccinations.
Wagenhäuser I., Reusch J., Gabel A., Mees J., Nyawale H., Frey A., Lâm T-T., Schubert-Unkmeir A., Dölken L., Kurzai O., Frantz S., Petri N., Krone M., Krone LB.
Sleep modulates the immune response, and sleep loss can reduce vaccine immunogenicity; vice versa, immune responses impact sleep. We aimed to investigate the influence of mental health and sleep quality on the immunogenicity of COVID-19 vaccinations and, conversely, of COVID-19 vaccinations on sleep quality. The prospective CoVacSer study monitored mental health, sleep quality and Anti-SARS-CoV-2-Spike IgG titres in a cohort of 1082 healthcare workers from 29 September 2021 to 19 December 2022. Questionnaires and blood samples were collected before, 14 days, and 3 months after the third COVID-19 vaccination, as well as in 154 participants before and 14 days after the fourth COVID-19 vaccination. Healthcare workers with psychiatric disorders had slightly lower Anti-SARS-CoV-2-Spike IgG levels before the third COVID-19 vaccination. However, this effect was mediated by higher median age and body mass index in this subgroup. Antibody titres following the third and fourth COVID-19 vaccinations ("booster vaccinations") were not significantly different between subgroups with and without psychiatric disorders. Sleep quality did not affect the humoral immunogenicity of the COVID-19 vaccinations. Moreover, the COVID-19 vaccinations did not impact self-reported sleep quality. Our data suggest that in a working population neither mental health nor sleep quality relevantly impact the immunogenicity of COVID-19 vaccinations, and that COVID-19 vaccinations do not cause a sustained deterioration of sleep, suggesting that they are not a precipitating factor for insomnia. The findings from this large-scale real-life cohort study will inform clinical practice regarding the recommendation of COVID-19 booster vaccinations for individuals with mental health and sleep problems.